2023 Mosquito Control Program
Chippewa Township has contracted APM Mosquito Control (APM) to continue the mosquito control program for the 2023 season. APM specializes in municipal and community-wide mosquito management programs. APM was established in 1986 and has over 30 years of experience in integrated mosquito management. APM's main office is located in Armada, Michigan. This brochure is being provided to the community as insight into APM’s approach for an effective integrated mosquito control program for Chippewa Township property owners and residents. This information also explains how we as property owners and residents can assist in this plan.
INTEGRATED MOSQUITO MANAGEMENT
This is a process, consisting of the balanced use of environmentally compatible and economically feasible products, to reduce mosquito populations to a tolerable level. APM develops and implements comprehensive integrated mosquito control programs. The basis of every APM control program is biological larval control. All potential mosquito larval habitats are surveyed, cataloged and mapped. Routine larval surveys are then scheduled to determine where larvae are developing and what actions need to be taken to control them. Adult mosquito populations are also sampled using a network of light traps. These surveillance activities allow APM to plan and implement larval and adult mosquito control applications in a manner consistent with Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM) protocols.
The primary objective of IMM is to prevent the development of mosquito larvae by using biological methods, thus minimizing the need to “fog” for adult mosquitoes. The use of ULV (ultra-low volume) fogging gives good but only temporary results under acceptable weather conditions and is not generally cost effective as a sole means of control. Biological larval control methods take advantage of natural enemies to reduce mosquito populations. Natural enemies fall into 3 categories: those that prey on mosquitoes; parasitize them; or act against their hormonal system. APM uses biological control in all three areas.
Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israeliensis) is a naturally occurring spore and crystal forming soil bacteria. Bti’s active ingredient has been shown to be toxic only to mosquitoes, black flies and closely related species, with no toxic effects on other aquatic organisms. A Bti application in late April to lowland/woodland areas will be the initial step of the villages integrated mosquito control program. Mosquito control activities are limited to specific political boundaries, but unfortunately adult mosquitoes don’t obey lines on a map. Thus any program that hopes to have effective control must contend with local larval development and invading migratory adults.
Nature has provided no successful alternative to chemical insecticides for controlling adult mosquitoes. The controlled application of ULV insecticides using modern technology and equipment can effectively reduce adult mosquitoes utilizing extremely small amounts of insecticide. Kontrol 4+4 or Biomist 4+4 is applied via truck and or off road vehicle-mounted equipment. Biomist 4+4 and Kontrol 4+4 are man-made permethrin based insecticides. These products offer excellent effectiveness against adult mosquitoes, low mammalian toxicity, low odor, and rapid biodegradability.
THE MOSQUITO STORY
Mosquitoes (Order Diptera, Family Culicidae) are some of the most adaptable and successful insects on earth and are found in some extraordinary places. Virtually any natural or man-made collection of water can support mosquito production.
Mosquitoes can be distinguished easily from other flies by the fact that they have both a long, piercing proboscis and scales on the veins of their wings. About 60 species are found in Michigan. Only a few of these are important as carriers of disease, but many others are significant nuisances. The two most common mosquito species found in Michigan are Aedes vexans and Culex pipiens. Aedes vexans is known as the floodwater mosquito because it lays its eggs on dry-ground in flood prone areas. Culex pipiens is an important disease vector, known to spread St. Louis Encephalitis, West Nile Virus and other encephalitis diseases.
THE MOSQUITO LIFE CYCLE
All mosquito species have two things in common: they must have water for their early stages; and they all undergo the same four-stage life cycle — egg, larva, pupa and adult. Mosquito eggs are laid individually or in clusters and are deposited either on the water surface or in flood prone areas. Most mosquito species will over- winter in the egg stage. If eggs are laid out of water, embryos may lay dormant for several years. Once the egg hatches, the larval stage begins. The larvae of most mosquito species hang suspended at the water surface using an air tube to breathe. The larvae feed on aquatic organisms near the surface. As a defense mechanism, the larvae can dive deeper into the water by swimming in a characteristic “S” motion. Larvae grow quickly and outgrow their exterior covering. Larvae molt four times. Larval stages last between 5 and 14 days depending on temperature and food availability. No feeding occurs in the pupal stage that lasts from 1 ½ to 4 days, after which the pupal skin splits along the back allowing the newly formed adult to slowly emerge and rest on the water surface. Male mosquitoes will emerge first and linger near the breeding site waiting for the females. Mating occurs quickly after emergence due to high mortality. As much as 30% of the adult population can die per day. The female compensates for this by laying large numbers of eggs, usually about 300. Males live about 7 days and feed on plant nectars. Females live about 6 weeks and must take a blood meal to nourish her eggs. She uses carbon dioxide, exhaled chemicals, and temperature patterns to locate her victims. The average female’s flight range is between 1 and 10 miles, but some species have been shown to travel up to 40 miles. After each blood meal, the female will oviposit her eggs, completing the life cycle. Several oviposits per female are possible.
MOSQUITOES AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Mosquitoes can spread disease only when they bite. During feeding, the female pierces her victim’s skin with her proboscis, injects her saliva, which contains an anti-coagulant and then sucks the victim’s blood in. If the victim’s blood contains disease-causing organisms, the mosquito ingests them too. These organisms are then maintained within the mosquito and eventually may be injected into another victim. In this way, a mosquito can spread disease from animal to animal, animal to man, or even person-to-person. In the U. S., there are about six mosquito-borne viruses that are capable of causing acute infections of the central nervous system. Most often this type of infection causes brain and central nervous system inflammation or encephalitis. The most common types found in our area are West Nile Virus (WNV), St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE). The only common parasite transmitted by mosquitoes is Dog Heart worm. Transmission of Dog Heart worm occurs only through the bite of an infected mosquito and involves a complicated transmission cycle. Mosquitoes and other insects do not transmit HIV or cause AIDS.
Standing water means mosquitoes. Any standing, stagnant water that remains for 7 to 10 days after a rain can, and usually will, produce mosquitoes.
Empty all water holding containers in your yard on a regular basis, at least once a week. Tires, children’s wading pools, rain barrels, buckets, plant pots, birdbaths, and stored boats are common examples of mosquito breeding sites around the yard.
Leaves and other debris should be removed from eaves troughs and down spouts.
Ditches and retention basins must be kept free of vegetation and debris to promote rapid drainage.
Pond edges should be kept clean of cattails and other aquatic vegetation. This is where mosquito larvae develop and mature.
To reduce the number of adult mosquitoes in your yard, keep your yard mowed as short as is practical. Keep all ornamental shrubs and bushes trimmed and pruned to allow airflow and light to penetrate. This is where adult mosquitoes hide during the day
Good housekeeping is encouraged. Screens on windows and doors should be well maintained to prevent mosquitoes from entering homes, structures as mosquitoes seek out cooler and shaded areas for resting.
HOW THE PROGRAM WILL WORK
Initial spring larvicide application of Vectobac G (bti) to Lowland/woodland wet areas during mid April to mid May.
The mapping and surveying of mosquito breeding sites in Chippewa Township and development of historical data. 161 breeding sites were mapped in 2015 and will breed at varying times of the year. The larviciding of these sites when found breeding with Vectobac G (bti) or Vectolex FG (Bs). This will be an ongoing process.
The placement of dry ice baited CDC traps and New Jersey Light traps for adult mosquito monitoring and disease testing.
Residents are encouraged to call the toll free number (877) 276-4714 when noticing excessive adult mosquito populations and or have standing water in their immediate area.
A weekly nighttime ULV application to targeted areas of the township from a truck mounted sprayer. This application is dependent on traps thresholds exceeding 20 females and weather conditions meeting the following criteria. Winds must be less than 10 mph. Temperature must be above 55*F and not raining at time of application. ULV normally occurs between Memorial Day through Labor Day as needed.
Description of Materials being used for mosquito abatement
Kontrol 4+4 (4.6% permethrin, 4.6% technical piperonyl butoxide)
Biomist 4+4 (4% permethrin, 4% technical piperonyl butoxide)
Vectobac G / CG (2%bacillus thuringiensis israelensis)
Vectolex CG (7.5 % bacillus sphaericus)
Temp0 10WP (10%Cyfluthrin)
Demand CS ( 9.7% Lambda-cyhalothrin1)
Public notice announcing the mosquito control program will be published in the local newspaper and also be posted at various locations throughout the township. We request that all property owners who are renting or leasing their properties to notify their tenants either by passing this information on to them or advising them that this information is available at Chippewa Township office.
Those who believe that their mosquito population is excessive are to Contact APM at (989) 426-2420 or their toll free number for an onsite inspection and additional treatment if the need is necessary and weather conditions permit. APM’s toll free number is (877) 276-4714
Those residents that would like to be notified before mosquito control applications are performed may request they be notified by calling APM at our local number. (989) 426-2420.
Notice: Property owners and residents who do not wish to be treated by this method of mosquito control are to fill out the letter of objection (included with this information) and submit it to Chippewa Township, 11084 E. Pickard Rd., Mount Pleasant, MI 48858. These properties will be identified as non-treatment areas.
The Mosquito control contractor for 2023 is: APM Mosquito Control, 21240 34 Mile Rd., Armada Michigan 48005. Our toll free number is 1-877 276-4714
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This is a letter of objection. The property owners or residents of Chippewa Township who prefer that their properties NOT be treated for Mosquito control are to Notify Chippewa Township as soon as possible using this form with the required information filled out. These notices will be forwarded to APM Mosquito Control so they can create a buffer and exclude your property from being treated.
We, the following, DO NOT want our property treated for mosquito control in 2023